The last quarter of each year brings great joy to all. The thoughts of great parties and food, wonderful fellowships with friends and loved ones, always bring a smile to one’s face and sweet memories in the future. The sharing of joy in the end of the year is the practice of many people and eLC embraced these too with the sharing of knowledge.
In this issue, we will share with you more on the affective domain in eLearning, new features and tools of Lectora Inspire and the concept of Interactive Installation Design. Scroll on!
Registration for Lectora eLearning Courseware Competition 2010 is now opened! Look through our newsletters for tips and submit your entries by end January 2011 and you could be one of the winners.
With the best designed courseware, you could have the opportunity to participate in the Lectora User Conference held in the United States. So let’s get those creative juices running to develop the winning entry! Read more on our Lectora Learning Community or you can register yourself here. Do look out for more news on the competition in the next issue.
I do not have the answer to “How then do we motivate learners” but what I have are some practical suggestions to help teach that domain that seem most difficult and to some impossible to teach – the affective domain. Two of such suggestions include digital storytelling (something one can easily create with Lectora) and instructional comics.
Storytelling is ancient and before writing was invented, other than learning by modelling, listening to others was probably the only other way to learn. Telling a story is probably one of the best ways to inform and convince others about your point of view. Unfortunately, in this modern age where people hardly speak to even the person sitting next to you in the office (Short Message Service or instant messaging is much more preferred), listening to stories is even more uncommon. But fortunately, riding on this technology age, storytelling has taken a new form, digital storytelling. “Digital storytelling is the practice of combining narrative with digital content, including images, sounds and video to create a short movie, typically with a strong emotional component”.(http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7021.pdf)
Digital storytelling does not require much technical background from the authors and it can be created using videos, images, or even drawings that can thereafter be photographed or scanned. Digital stories are very often effective in teaching the affective domain because it is usually a personal story. Not only personally told and in the perspective of the author, it is often also in one’s personal voice which triggers one’s emotional feelings especially when coupled with appropriate music, sound effects or even pauses. The pacing and tone of voice together with the images flashed can easily arouse the emotions and affect the “Receiving Phenomena” as according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of affective domain. Typically starting with a dramatic question to capture learner’s attention, the answer is usually revealed at the end of the story when emotions are high.
With digital stories, to ignite the emotions sufficiently to motivate the learner on the learning points but not overwhelming them to the extent of aversion is a balance the author has to juggle. However, the advantage digital storytelling has is the ability to use not only textual and visual effects but also the auditory components to ensure learners are not overloaded cognitively but are affectively motivated. Examples of some digital stories can be found in http://www.bbc.co.uk/tellinglives.
The use of instructional comic is another approach to addressing the affective domain. More frequently used as an attention grabber, instructional comics set the stage for teaching the affective learning points. Without taking away the seriousness of a topic, instructional comics like digital storytelling can put into context and enthuse learners the learning points without intimidating them. The last thing we want to do to learners is to make them feel their belief system is being threaten and subsequently an unwillingness to listen or learn. Instructional comics therefore will create a greater willingness to listen and “receive the phenomena” and encourage participation from the learners by “responding to the phenomena”. By using instructional comics, we want to lighten the mood to create a more approachable ambience to present more serious content thereafter. As comics have primarily been an entertainment tool, its appeal to learners of all age group will minimize repulsion to the content that is being presented.
With instructional comics, the need to read a lot of text is also minimized as graphics play a bigger role in presenting the content across. The graphics can tell the main bulk of the story with the text setting the context for the learners.
From the above two suggestions of using digital storytelling and instructional comics in our eLearning content, one will notice a minimal use of words. Its intention is to reduce the extraneous load on the learners to only state what is necessary while focusing their attention on the media, visual or auditory components. While both the approaches use a lot more visuals, their usage may be somewhat different. Digital storytelling tend to be more effective in presenting the content to bring across the learning point while instructional comics tend to set the stage so that the learner is prepared to listen or read what is to be taught. The strength of digital stories lies in the added auditory component which is missing in instructional comics. This auditory component stirs the emotions to motivate the learning or even bring about the learning. The strength of instructional comics on the other hand enlightens the mood to reduce one’s protection over one’s belief and value system to create the willingness to listen before learning can take place.
So if you are attempting to teach some affective content, you can try the approaches mentioned above.
Affecting the affective domain in eLearning
It’s probably a common saying that getting someone to change their behavior, attitude and beliefs - basically one’s affective behavior - is one of the hardest things to do. Shaped by a person’s entire social cultural history, resistant to change will naturally be strong. When instructional designers consider teaching the affective domain, motivation seems to be the first, if not the only, word that comes to mind. We all know if we motivate the learner, chances of learning would increase. However the golden question is always how do we motivate the learner? Especially when it comes to changing one’s values and beliefs, how do we reduce the defensiveness of the learner to accept or even to just listen to what the new learning points may be?
New Features and Tools of Lectora Inspire
NEW! Introducing Lectora Inspire, the complete eLearning solution includes the power of Lectora authoring bundled with Camtasia, Snagit, Flypaper and everything you need in one easy to use, powerful development tool and allows you to create engaging learning experiences. eLC will explain in more details of wonderful new features, like as Camtasia, Snagit and Flypaper with example.
Interactive Installation Design
Floor tile projection
Refer to photo at: www.luminvision.co.uk
Have you ever seen a projection on a floor tile and let you interact with it? Or how many times have you been out to a bar or coffee shop and had trouble meeting people or starting conversations with other people there? Have you ever thought of an interactive media that will break the ice between you and your correspondent? Here, we will be focusing on investigating and understanding the system of interactive installation.
The concept of Interaction Design has expanded and entered almost every design field in our information society which leads to the idea of “Interactive Installation Design”. It started with the Human Computing Interaction (HCI) Design that has been recognised in playing a vital role in today's information society. Due to the increasing development of HCI technology, this results in an enormous demand for interaction design and new media installation art in the recent years.
The interactive installation uses media that are usually involving sensors as the detector and reaction of the audiences captured when looking at the installations that results in virtual reality. The installation must use the required web-camera motion capture function as the main user information input method to establish the interactive relationship. Users, including their environment and technology play important roles in the whole process. The interactive elements must also be carefully considered to decide what information is critical for the user to interact with the installation.
Firstly, we have to understand the user such as their lifestyle, habits, behaviours, cultures, actions and preferences. User oriented methods are employed to collect and analyze information necessary for comparison and design explorations. Secondly, the environments such as conditions, information, or physical contexts should be observed which will affect the users and their actions. Lastly, the technology that is required for the flow of the system. Technology is divided into 3 groups; sensor, comparator and implementer. Sensor (camera, mouse or keyboard) works by transmitting and collecting information into the comparator. In the comparator, information is translated, stored and transferred to the implementer. Implementer is the medium which allows the user to interact.
A project conducted by a group of students, Team Sociable, on interactive installation design “Sociable Table” has brought us closer to the virtual world where a table can interact with people. It works by placing a cup on the table surface which allows you to play games, doodle on tabletop and even send messages to others with these different things. You are forced to interact with other people who are at the table. For the physical structure of the sensor and implementer, they uses different technologies consisting of SONY eye cameras, infrared LED rear illumination system, mirror, exhaust, projector, high performance server (Flash and reacTIVision) and plexiglas with print film overlay. For the programming part, they use reacTIVision as their tracking technology and flash for visualization, interaction and UI rendering.
The technology and projection table
Refer to photo at: www.sociabletable.com/development.php
Programming the interface
Refer to photo at: www.sociabletable.com/development.php
I am sure you are looking forward for the Christmas Lights-Up in the city where the skies are brightened up with twinkle stars.
Since this will be the last issue for the year 2010, eLC would like to wish you an early Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! May Love, Joy, Peace and Goodwill be your gift at Christmas.
As each cup has a distinctive barcode at the bottom, it works by placing down the cup to the table top. The camera (sensor) picks up the image and translates the data to the User Data Protocol (UDP) network packet information. Flash, as comparator, outputs the information assigned as a visual representation and translated into real time XML data which is consumed by Flash itself. The implementation of custom Java libraries is capable of tracking 2 forms of input; object and finger interactions on the table. More information on this project can be found at www.sociabletable.com